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Waterproofing & Water Control

University Link - Design

Service Performed
Sub-consultant for NATM/SEM design and waterproofing design.
Commencement - Services
July 02, 2007
Completion - Services
January 02, 2009
Location
401 S. Jackson Street
Seattle, WA 98104
United States
Geology description

The geology along the alignment consists of over-consolidated glacial clay and till with fractured zones, as well as sand and silt layers.

Geology types
Description

University Link is a 5km light rail extension that runs in twin-bored tunnels from Downtown Seattle north to the University of Washington, with stations at Capitol Hill and on the University of Washington campus. The twin-bored tunnels are connected with 20 cross passages. Dr. Sauer & Partners performed the temporary and final support design for the cross passages. This included the design of excavation and support measures and the development of specific ground support categories, settlement analyses, and the structural analyses of initial and permanent lining.

Activity
Service areas
Construction methods
T Cross Passage
3D Finite Element Model
Project number
262D
Final cost
$1.6 billion USD

Combined Sewage Storage Tunnel (CSST)

Service Performed
Dr. Sauer & Partners provided geotechnical engineering, waterproofing & water control as well as instrumentation & monitoring support.
Commencement - Services
February 01, 2016
Location
110 Laurier Avenue West
Ottawa, ON K1P 1J1
Canada
Geology description

The alignment of the tunnels mainly crossing limestone formations with laminated black shales of varying thickness and locally glacial till.

Geology types
Description

The Combined Sewage Storage Tunnel (CSST) project is part of the Ottawa River Action Plan (ORAP) and will greatly reduce the frequency of sewage overflows during storms from entering the Ottawa River. The project consists of the design and construction of two TBM tunnels running east-west and north-south along 6.2km in total, also access shafts incorporating drop structures. The storage volume will be 43,000m3. Dr. Sauer & Partners supported the contractor with the preparation of the feasibility study on the TBM utilisation and also assisted with the clarifications on ground water drawdown risks and pre-excavation grouting criteria justification.

Activity
Categories
Final cost
$232,000,000
Service areas
Waterproofing & Water Control
Construction methods
Special Construction techniques
Tunneling under
CSST map (http://ottawa.ca)
Excess wet weather flow is sent to CSST (http://ottawa.ca)
Project number
481C
Final cost
$232 million CAD
Completion date
Ongoing

Sound Transit Beacon Hill Station

Service Performed
Optimizing station and tunnel configurations, Interpreting geologic information, preliminary and detailed design, developing 3D Finite Element Models and performing structural and seismic design.
Commencement - Services
January 01, 2002
Completion - Services
January 01, 2009
Location
401 S. Jackson Street
Seattle, WA 98104
United States
Geology description

Beacon Hill Station is located 49 m below the ground surface in complex glacial soils with multiple groundwater horizons.

Geology types
Description

Beacon Hill Station is part of the 22.5 km initial segment of Sound Transit's Central Link Light Rail. It is located 49 m below the ground surface in complex glacial soils with multiple groundwater horizons. The project comprises deep mined station tunnels and two 1.5 km long running tunnels excavated using a tunnel boring machine. The mined station was excavated through compressible glacial soils with multiple groundwater horizons using conventional mining techniques. The access shafts and station headhouses were constructed using slurry walls and cut-and-cover techniques.

Activity
Service areas
Construction methods
Special Construction techniques
Tunneling under
Tunnel length
1.5km
Beacon Hill Station Layout
Tunnel Excavation under way
Project number
418C
Final cost
$250 million USD

Bond Street Station Upgrade Design

Service Performed
Design of the primary and secondary sprayed concrete linings, 3D FE modelling of all SCL tunnels including excavation steps and ground movement assessments.
Commencement - Services
January 01, 2011
Completion - Services
January 01, 2013
Location
Oxford Street
London
W1C 2HU
United Kingdom
Geology description

The tunnel horizon is generally within the London Clay formation with the lowest tunnels sitting in the Lambeth Group, where clay layers and water bearing clayey sands are inter-changing.

Geology types
Description

Bond Street tube station is a major gateway to London's West End served by both the Central and Jubilee lines. As part of the LU tube upgrade plan, the station is undergoing a major upgrade to increase capacity, improve accessibility and create interchange with the new Crossrail station. The project provides two additional escalators from the interchange level to the Jubilee line, low-level interchange route between the Central and Jubilee lines, a new step-free entrance, ticket hall and new lifts. The majority of the tunnelling works will be mechanically excavated and lined with sprayed concrete.

Activity
Final cost
$150,000,000
Service areas
Tunnel Design & Specialities, Waterproofing & Water Control
Construction methods
Tunneling under
Max Excavation Area (m2)
15-90m2
Tunnel length
370m
3D view of proposed tunnelling and existing infrastructure
Connection chamber one
Graphic  showing split of 3D FE models
3D Graphic showing construction site and building frame used for laydown/plant
Northern Tunnels in relation to Jubilee Line platforms and Post Office Tunnel
Binocular Tunnel at Jubilee Platform level
Project number
419D1
Final cost
£150 million GBP

Tottenham Court Road Station Upgrade Design

Client
Service Performed
Design of numerous temporary sprayed concrete lined shaft and tunnel structures, and the waterproofing system for the upgrade of the existing London Underground Tottenham Court Road Station.
Commencement - Services
August 01, 2007
Completion - Services
January 01, 2010
Location
Oxford Street
London
London
W1D 1AN
United Kingdom
Technical data

Tottenham Court Road Station is a London Underground station situated in central London. The station serves as an interchange between the Central and Northern lines. Over 150,000 passengers use the station daily.

Geology description

London Clay Formation (over-consolidated, very stiff to hard clay)

Geology types
Description

Currently over 150,000 passengers use the station daily and with the completion of Crossrail in 2017, passenger numbers are expected to increase to over 200,000. The tunnels are of diameters between 4.0m and 11.0m and typically consist of a temporary sprayed concrete primary lining, a spray applied waterproofing membrane and a cast-in-place concrete secondary lining. Multiple transitions and interfaces to existing LU structures make for a challenging design and construction project under the busy streets of central London.

Activity
Final cost
$480,000,000
Service areas
Construction methods
Special Construction techniques
Tunneling under
Max Excavation Area (m2)
23-104m2
Tunnel length
13-104m
Overview of new tunnel works
General arrangement of sprayed concrete overbridge
Northern line concourse tunnel with cross passages
Installation of steel transfer beam
Excavation and support of Northern line concourse tunnel
Removal of existing backfilled structure
Project number
411D
Final cost
£480 million GBP

Crossrail Farringdon Station Design

Service Performed
Design of the primary sprayed concrete linings and excavation stability including depressurisation/dewatering. 3D FE modelling of all SCL tunnels including excavation steps.
Commencement - Services
April 01, 2012
Completion - Services
October 01, 2015
Location
39 Cowcross Street
London
London
EC1M 6BY
United Kingdom
Technical data

The BFK joint venture was awarded the constrction contract for Farringdon Crossrail station in 2011. BFK appointed Dr. Sauer & Partners as consultants for all sprayed concrete lining (SCL) tunnelling works prior to ring closure. 

Geology description

From the ground surface to the bedrock the geology comprised made ground, river terrace deposits, followed by London Clay, Lambeth Group formation, Thanet Sands and chalk.

Geology types
Description

Farringdon station is situated at the heart of London's rail network and will be one of its major rail interchange stations, which will link Crossrail, Thameslink services and London Underground trains. The station layout includes two ticket halls, two escalator inclines, two platform tunnels, connecting cross passages, concourse tunnels and ventilation adits. The chosen tunnelling system for Farringdon Station was sprayed concrete lining (SCL). The station comprised a total of 1km of SCL tunnels at depths of up to 35m below ground level and excavation cross-sections varying from 25m2 to 110m2.

Activity
Final cost
$400,000,000
Service areas
Tunnel Design & Specialities, Waterproofing & Water Control
Construction methods
Tunneling under
Max Excavation Area (m2)
25-110m2
Tunnel length
1000m
General view of the Crossrail route with focus on Farringdon Station
Western ticket hall and SCL tunnels
CP1 (left), CP1-CH1 connection adit (centre) and PL2RC (right)
Plan view of the station showing the projection of the Faults at tunnel axis level and the Sand lenses
Probing in CP1
Cycle of risk reduction through the implementation of geotechnical risk management tools
Project number
222D5
Final cost
£400 million GBP

Chinatown Station

Service Performed
Conceptual, preliminary, detailed design of underground caverns, egress tunnels and mined shafts; scheduling and cost estimating; risk management; specifications and tender. Onsite support during construction.
Estimated cost
$1,600,000,000
Commencement - Services
March 01, 2016
Completion - Services
March 31, 2018
Location
425 Market Street Suite 1700
San Francisco, CA 94105
United States
Geology description

The geology ranges from soft clay (Bay Clay) to stiff sands (Colma Sands) and competent to highly fractured rock (Franciscan Formation). The groundwater table is generally above the cavern springline.

Geology types
Description

Chinatown Station is the Northern Terminus of the Third Street Light Rail Project, which is located in a dense urban neighbourhood, underneath a busy street and directly adjacent to numerous old buildings, as well as one high-rise building. The station encompasses a Cut-and-Cover headhouse for passenger entry, three large station caverns and an emergency egress shaft. In order to minimise excavation volume and optimise cost and schedule, the ventilation ducts are located below the platform level, and routed into the headhouse.

Activity
Service areas
Construction methods
Special Construction techniques
Tunneling under
Groundwater control
Tunnel length
2.7km
Excavation and support sequence of large urban cavern
Large urban cavern under construction
Excavation and support sequence - longitudinal section
Chinatown, San Francisco Dense Urban Neighborhood
Overall Station Layout, Headhouse and Caverns (Rendering by JV)
Station Cavern with Center Platform, Mezzanine and Ventilation Ducts
Proposed Mitigation Measures for adjacent Buildings
Complex 3D Finite Element Analyses
Project number
358E
Final cost
$1.6 billion USD
Completion date
Ongoing

Section E4a, Greenbelt Route, Georgia Avenue - Petworth Station

Service Performed
Waterproofing design and construction support services
Commencement - Services
December 28, 1994
Completion - Services
December 28, 1997
Location
Washington, DC
United States
Technical data

PVC membrane waterproofing Cut & Cover Station, including crossover, service rooms, ventilation structures, station entrances. Overall length: 1,090 ft (332 m); average depth: 75 ft (23 m); waterproofed area: 275,000 sqft (25550 m²).

Geology description

Very compact light gray clayey or silty medium fine sand. Dark gray plastic clay. Light gray/green fine grained hornblende quartz diorite, highly weathered to slighty weathered.

Geology types
Categories
Final cost
$1,200,000
Service areas
Waterproofing & Water Control
Installation at the wall
Waterproofing at TBM portal
Airial photo
Running Tunnels entering the Station Shaft
Installation of Running Tunnel Waterproofing System
Waterproofing System at Junction Running Tunnel and Station Shaft
Construction of Cut & Cover Section
Doorframe Slab Cross Section and Plan

Barrow-upon-Soar Tunnels

Service Performed
Value engineering: NATM detailed design, FEM calculation and design of waterproofing system.
Commencement - Services
March 27, 1986
Completion - Services
December 27, 1988
Location
Barrow upon Soar
Leicestershire
LE12 8GB
United Kingdom
Technical data

2 inclined transportation tunnels, length of 505 m (1656 ft) each. Under hydrostatic waterpressure, up to 55 psi for the first 300 m (984 ft) of each drift.

Geology description

River and glacial deposits, Blue Lias, limestones, Rhaetic Mudstones, Tea Green Marl, Mercia Mudstone, Tutbury Gypsum.

Geology types
Description

British Gypsum's operation at Leicestershire, a plaster production plant, improved infrastructure by establishing 2 new tunnels on site. Ground treatment for the control of water ingress during construction, drift excavation, final lining and a water ingress guarantee had to be taken into consideration. By applying NATM, the tunnel was excavated by roadheader and supported with lattice girders followed by shotcrete. The construction met the final water ingress guarantee by installing a PVC waterproofing membrane between the primary shotcrete lining and the final unreinforced in-situ concrete lining which is of a watertight quality in the invert.

Activity
Final cost
$4,000,000
Service areas
Waterproofing & Water Control
Typical cross section
Canopy construction at portal
Project number
117D
Final cost
£4 million GBP

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